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The Role of Research in ICSE

ICSE is an international centre that focuses on STEM education research relevant to day-to-day teaching practice. Research concerning teaching practice in schools and its transfer into practice thus plays a crucial role for us and points the way ahead. Within the framework of the ICSE Consortium the work of leading research institutions form all over Europe is bundled and cultivated through a consistent exchange and common projects.

With regard to ICSE’s objective of enhancing STEM education throughout Europe, the following aspects are of special importance:

  • Research on innovative teaching approaches such as inquiry-based learning, connections to real-life contexts, interdisciplinarity or to diversity in classrooms
  • The development, implementation and evaluation of feasible and impactful professional development concepts
  • Research on concepts to scale up teacher professional development, also taking into account systemic barriers
  • Development, in situ-evaluation and refinement of high-quality classroom materials and professional development materials, anchored in the field of design research

Most of ICSE’s international projects focus on a research-based development of teaching and professional development concepts and their evaluation. You can find the results of research from these projects in our publications. For more information about current projects click here.




  • Buhagiar, M.A., Calleja, J., & Galea, M. (2023) Promotion and offering in professional development programmes for mathematics teachers: What happens when there’s a mismatch? Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 26(5), 635–666.
  • Cruz-Lorite, I. M., Cebrián-Robles, D., Acebal-Expósito, M. D. C., & Evagorou, M. (2023). Analysis of the Informal Reasoning Modes of Preservice Primary Teachers When Arguing about a Socio-Scientific Issue on Nuclear Power during a Role Play. Sustainability15 (5), 4291.
  • Evagorou, M., Vrikki, M. & Papanastasiou, E. (2023). Students’ and teachers’ voice on the outcomes of a citizenship education curriculum. Citizenship, Social and Economic Education Journal.
  • Evagorou, M., Papanastasiou, E. & Vrikki, M. (2023). What do we really know about student’ written arguments? Evaluating written argumentation skills. European Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 11 (4), 615-634.
  • Janousková, S., Bilek, M., & Scholzová, V. (2023). Open schooling through the eyes of experts. In Project-based Education and other Activating Strategies and Issues in Science Education XX. Conference proceedings. Prague: Charles University – Faculty of Education, pp. 20-26. ISSN 2695-0626.
  • Puig, B. & Evagorou, M. (2023). COVID-19: A Context to Promote Critical Thinking and Argumentation to Secondary and University Students. In Rezaei, N. (eds) Brain, Decision Making and Mental Health. Integrated Science, v.12, 219-236 Springer, Cham.
  • Romero-Ariza, M., Quesada, A., Abril, A. M., & Martín-Peciña, M. (2023). Developing tools to evaluate the impact of open schooling on students’ science literacy and sustainability consciousness. In INTED2023 Proceedings (pp. 8287-8293). IATED. doi: 10.21125/inted.2023. Available at
  • Romero-Ariza M, Abril Gallego AM, Quesada Armenteros A and Rodríguez Ortega PG (2023). OER interoperability educational design: enabling research-informed improvement of public repositories. Frontiers in Education, 8, 1082577. doi: 10.3389/feduc.2023.1082577. Available at
  • Shwartz, Y., Bayram Jacobs, D. & Evagorou, M. (2023).  Edited a Special Issue on Sustainability and Citizenship: Integration of Socio-Scientific Issues in Science Education in Sustainability Journal.
  • Sorge, S., Doorman, M., Maass, K., Straser, O., Hesse, A., Jonker, V., & Wijers, M. (2023). Supporting mathematics and science teachers in implementing intercultural learning. ZDM – Mathematics Education, 55(5), 981–993.
  • Vrikki, M., & Evagorou, M. (2023). An analysis of teacher questioning practices in dialogic lessons. International Journal of Educational Research117, 102107.


  • Bayram Jacobs, D., Evagorou, M.; Shwartz, Y., & Akaygun, S. (2022). Science education for citizenship through Socio-Scientific Issues. Editorial in Frontiers in Education.
  • Bilgin, A. S., Molina Ascanio, M., Milanovic, I., Kirsch, M., Beernaert, Y., Scicluna, D., Noriega, M., Farrugia, J., Evagorou, M., Molina, P., Kapoor, K., Malmberg, B., Trullàs, M., Pedralli, M., Neuberg, C., Koliakou, I., Magid-Podolsky, S., Herrero, B., Bultynck, L., Niewint-Gori, J., Fabry, E., Quarta, B., Miotti, B., Muscat, M., Vargas, R., Gras-Velázquez, A. (2022). STEM Female Leaders – The way forward for reducing the gender gap in STEM fields. SCIENTIX report.
  • Bos, R., Doorman, M., Drijvers, P., & Shvarts, A. (2022). Embodied design using augmented reality: the case of the gradient. Teaching Mathematics and its Applications, 41(2), 125-141.
  • Calleja, J. & Buhagiar, M. A. (2022). Students’ resistance to learning mathematics through investigations. Journal of Curriculum Studies, 54(1), 123-146. DOI: 10.1080/00220272.2021.1981457
  • Cobo, C, Abril, A.M. & Romero-Ariza, M. (2022). Effectiveness of a contextualised and integrated approach to improving and retaining preservice teachers’ views of the nature of science, International Journal of Science Education, 44(18), 2783-2803.
  • Doorman, M., Bos, R., & Duijzer, C. (2022). Developing Basic Principles of Calculus and Motion in Lower Secondary Education. In C. Michelsen, A. Beckmann, U. T. Jankvist, & A. Savard (Eds.), Mathematics and Its Connections to the Arts and Sciences (MACAS): 15 Years of Interdisciplinary Mathematics Education (pp. 311-323). Springer Cham.
  • Jessen, B., Bos, R., Doorman, M., & Winsløw, C. (2022). Lesson study in mathematics with TDS and RME as theoretical support: two cases from the European TIME project. International Journal for Lesson and Learning Studies.
  • Kafetzopoulos, G. – I., & Psycharis, G. (2022). Conceptualization of function as a covariational relationship between two quantities through
    modeling tasks. Journal of Mathematical Behavior, 67.
  • Maass, K., Artigue, M., Burkhardt, H., Doorman, M., English, L. D., Geiger, V., Krainer, K., Potari, D., & Schoenfeld, A. (2022). Mathematical modelling – a key to citizenship education. In N. Buchholtz, B. Schwarz, & K. Vorhölter (Eds.), Initiationen mathematikdidaktischer Forschung: Festschrift zum 70. Geburtstag von Gabriele Kaiser (pp. 31-50). Springer Spektrum Wiesbaden.
  • Nisiforou. E. & Evagorou, M. (2022). Impact of COVID-19 pandemic on pre-service teachers practices and readiness in Baumgartner, Kaplan-Rakowski, Ferdig, Hartshorne & Mouza (Eds). A Retrospective of Teaching, Technology, and Teacher Education During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Association for the Advancement of Computing in Education (AACE). Retrieved from
  • Prado, B. G., Puig, B., & Evagorou, M. (2022). Primary pre-service teachers’ emotions and interest towards insects: an explorative case study. Journal of Biological Education56(1), 61-76.DOI: 10.1080/00219266.2020.1756896
  • Šipuš, Ž. M., Bašić, M., Doorman, M., Špalj, E., & Antoliš, S. (Accepted/In press- 2022). MERIA – Conflict Lines: Experience with Two Innovative Teaching Materials. Center for Educational Policy Studies Journal.
  • Vroutsis, N., Psycharis, G., & Triantafillou, C. (2022). Crossing the
    boundaries between school mathematics and marine navigation through authentic tasks. For the Learning of Mathematics, Vol. 23, No 3.


  • Ariza, M. R., Boeve-de Pauw, J., Olsson, D., Van Petegem, P., Parra, G., & Gericke, N. (2021). Promoting Environmental Citizenship in Education: The Potential of the Sustainability Consciousness Questionnaire to Measure Impact of Interventions. Sustainability, 13(20), 11420.
  • Ariza, M. R., Christodoulou, A., Harskamp, M. V., Knippels, M. C. P., Kyza, E. A., Levinson, R., & Agesilaou, A. (2021). Socio-Scientific Inquiry-Based Learning as a Means toward Environmental Citizenship. Sustainability13(20), 11509.
  • Ariza, M.R., Quesada, A., Abril, A. M., & Cobo-Huesa, C. (2021). Changing teachers’ self-efficacy, beliefs and practices through STEAM teacher professional development.  Journal for the Study of Education and Development, 44(4), 1-33.
  • Ariza, M.R., Quesada Armenteros, A., & Estepa Castro, A. (2021). Promoting critical thinking through mathematics and science teacher education: the case of argumentation and graphs interpretation about climate change. European Journal of Teacher Education, 1-19
  • Bakogianni, D., Potari, D., Psycharis, G., Sakonidis, C., Spiliotopoulou,
    V., & Triantafillou, C. (2021). Mathematics teacher educators’ learning in supporting teachers to link mathematics and workplace situations in
    classroom teaching. In M. Goos & Beswick, K. (Eds.), The Learning and
    Development of Mathematics Teacher Educators – International Perspectives and Challenges
    (pp. 281-299). New York, NY: Springer.
  • Bauer, C., Dunee, D., Kadizik-Bartoszewska, A., Kalm-Akubardia, M., Katisko, M., Kostrzewska, K., Mackin, C., Nieminen, A., O’Hara, J., Oosterhaven, F., Wojtas, M. (2021). Creative Methods in Science Teaching – Ways Forward!
  • Calleja, J., Foster, C. & Hodgen, J. (2021). Integrating ‘just-in-time’ learning in the design of mathematics professional development. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 23(2), 79-101.
  • Calleja, J. (2021). Changes in mathematics teachers’ self-reported beliefs and practices over the course of a blended continuing professional development. Mathematics Education Research Journal. DOI: 10.1007/s13394-021-00366-x
  • Huang, L., Doorman, L. M., & van Joolingen, W. R. (2021). Inquiry-Based Learning Practices in Lower-Secondary Mathematics Education Reported by Students from China and the Netherlands. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(7), 1505-1521.
  • Kaya, G. & Cakmakci, G. (2021). Conversation analytic examination of inquiry-based science classrooms. Kastamonu Education Journal29(3), 736-755. doi: 10.24106/kefdergi.940307
  • Maass, K., Sorge, S., Ariza, M.R., Hesse, A., Straser, O. (2021). Promoting Active Citizenship in Mathematics and Science Teaching. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 1-20.
  • Triantafillou, C., Psycharis, G., Potari, D., Bakogianni, D., & Spiliotopoulou, V. (2021). Teacher Educators’ Activity Aiming to Support Inquiry through Mathematics and Science Teacher Collaboration. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 19(1), 21-37.


  • Ariza, M. R., Quesada, A., Abril, A. M., Sorensen, P., & Oliver, M.C. (2020). Highly recommended and poorly used: English and Spanish science teachers’ views of inquiry-based learning and its enactment. EURASIA Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(1), 1-16.
  • Artigue, M., Bosch, M., Doorman, M., Juhász, P., Kvasz, L. & Maass, K. (2020). Inquiry based mathematics education and the development of learning trajectories. Teaching Mathematics and Computer Science, 18 (3), 63-89.
  • Cakmakci, G., Aydeniz, M., Brown, A. & Makokha, J. M. (2020). Situated Cognition and Cognitive Apprenticeships in Learning.  In B. Akpan & Kennedy, T. (Eds.), Science Education in Theory and Practice (pp. 293-310). Dordrecht: Springer.
  • Cakmakci, G. & Gelmez-Burakgazi, S. (2020). Science communication in Turkey: From the Ottoman Empire to the Republic. In T. Gascoigne, B. Schiele, J. Leach, M. Riedlinger, B. V. Lewenstein, L. Massarani, P. Broks (Eds.), Communicating Science: A Global Perspective (pp. 885-906). Canberra, Australian National University: ANU Press.
  • Calleja, J. (2020). A spiral pattern investigation: Making mathematical connections. The Mathematical Gazette, 104(560), 262-270. DOI: 10.1017/mag.2020.49
  • Tanudjaya, C.P. & Doorman, L.M. (2020). Examining Higher Order Thinking in Indonesian Lower Secondary Mathematics Classrooms.  Journal on Mathematics Education, 11 (2), 277-300. DOI:


  • Evagorou, M. & Mousoulides, N. (2019). Culturally Responsive Mathematics and Science Teaching, in Solomou & Hatsisoteriou (Editors), Improving school and teaching in cultural pluralism societies. Athens: Diadrasis.
  • Kaya, G., Sardag, M., & Cakmakci, G. (2019). Classroom Interactional Management in Achievement-Related Diversity Science and Math Classrooms. Paper presented at 13th European Science Education Research Association (ESERA) Conference, Bologna, Italy.
  • Maass, K., Cobb, P., Krainer, K. et al. (2019). Different ways to implement innovative teaching approaches at scale. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 102(3),303-318.DOI 10.1007/s10649-019-09920-8.
  • Maass, K., Doorman, M., Jonker, V. & Wijers, M. (2019). Promoting active citizenship in mathematics teaching. ZDM Mathematics Education, 51(7). DOI 10.1007/s11858-019-01048-6.
  • Maass, K. & Engeln, K.(2019). Professional development on connections to the world of work in mathematics and science education. ZDM Mathematics Education, 51(7). DOI 10.1007/s11858-019-01047-7.
  • Maass, K., Geiger, V., Romero Ariza, M. & Goos, M. (2019). The Role of Mathematics in interdisciplinary STEM education. ZDM Mathematics Education, 51(6), 869-884. DOI 10.1007/s11858-019-01100-5.
  • Romero-Ariza, M., Quesada, A., Abril, A.M. (2019). Realistic Contexts and Inquiry to Enhance Stem Education: In-Depht Views in Case Studies. In Inted2019 proceedings, (pp. 9954-9959). ISBN: 978-84-09-08619-1. DOI: 21125/inted.2019.2496

2017 – 2018:

  • Aydeniz, M. & Cakmakci, G. (2017). Integrating Engineering Concepts and Practices into Science Education: Challenges and Opportunities. In K. S. Taber & B. Akpan (Eds.), Science Education: An International Course Companion (pp. 221-232). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Sense Publishers.
  • Buhagiar, M.A. (2018) The mathematics teacher who became a promoter of inquiry-based learning: A story of teacher change, Malta Review of Educational Research, 12(1), 31-61. Available:
  • Cakmakci, G. & Yalaki, Y. (2018) Promoting pre-service teachers’ ideas about nature of science through science-related media reports. In O. Tsivitanidou, P. Gray, E. Rybska, L. Louca & C. Constantinou (Eds.), Professional Development for Inquiry-Based Science Teaching and Learning (pp. 137-161). Dordrecht: Springer. ISBN 978-3-319-91406-0
  • Calleja, J. (2018).  Teacher Participation in Continuing Professional Development: Motivating factors and programme effectiveness. Malta Review of Educational Research, 12(1), 5-29.
  • Calleja, J. (2018). MaSDiV. Mathsline, 34, p. 7.
  • Calleja, J. (2018). MaSDiV project. Sci-News: Teaching and Learning Science Together, 11(4), p. 3.
  • Ellul, A. (2018). Professional Development: The MaSDiV experience. Mathsline, 35, p. 4-5.
  • Heinz, J., Enghag, M., Stuchlikova, I., Cakmakci, G., Peleg, R. & Baram-Tsabari, A. (2017). Impact of initiatives to implement science inquiry – a comparative study of the Turkish, Israeli, Swedish and Czech science education systems. Cultural Studies of Science Education12(3), 677-708.
  • Maass, K. (2018). Scaling up Innovative Teaching Approaches in Mathematics: Supporting Teachers to Take up a New Role as Professional Development Course Leaders for Inquiry-Based Learning. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6 (7), 1-16. DOI: 10.11114/jets.v6i7.3261.
  • Maass, K. & Engeln, K. (2018). Effects of Scaled-up Professional Development Courses About Inquiry-Based Learning on Teachers. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 6 (4), 1-16. DOI: 10.11114/jets.v6i4.3083.
  • Maass, K. & Engeln, K. (2018). Impact of professional development involving modelling on teachers and their teaching. ZDM, 50(1), 273-285.
  • Kaspersen, E. S., Pepin, B., & Sikko, S.A. (2017). Measuring student teachers’ practices and beliefs about teaching mathematics using the Rasch model. International Journal of Research and Method in Education. 40(4): 421-442.
  • Maass, K. Swan, M., Aldorf, A.(2017). Mathematics Teachers’ Beliefs about Inquiry-based Learning after a Professional Development Course – An International Study. Journal of Education and Training Studies, 5 (9), 1-17. DOI: 10.11114/jets.v5i9.2556.
  • Romero-Ariza, M., Quesada, A., Abril, A.M. (2018). Stem Education and Fundamental Values: Development of an Instrument for Quality Assurance. In Inted2018 proceedings, (pp. 9173). ISBN: 978-84-697-9480-7. DOI: 21125/inted.2018.2244


2014 – 2016:

  • Calleja, J. (2016). Teaching Mathematics through Inquiry: A continuing professional development programme design. Educational Designer, 3(9). Available online:
  • Febri, M.I.M. & Staberg, R. L. (2016). Implementing IBL and WoW in primary science in Norway. In:Science Education Research: Engaging learners for a sustainable future. Helsinki: ESERA 2016 ISBN 978-951-51-1541-6. pp 1535-1546.
  • Febri, M., Sikko, S.A., Dahl, H. & Staberg, R.L. (2016). Enhancing Teachers’ Professional Knowledge in Connecting the World of Work to Inquiry Based Science Teaching: Case of Norway. In: Conference Proceedings. New Perspectives in Science Education, Padova: libreria universitaria Edizioni. ISBN: 978-88-6292-705-5. pp 693-697.
  • Pampaka, M., Pepin, B., & Sikko, S. A. (2016). Supporting or alienating students during their transition to Higher Education: Mathematically relevant trajectories in the contexts of England and Norway. International Journal of Educational Research. 79:240-257
  • Staberg, R.L., Febri, M.I.M., & Sikko, S.A. (2016). In: Doorman M, Jonker V, Wijers M (authors) & Kuijpers N, Mass K, Reitz-Koncebovski K (Eds). Mathematics and Science in Life: Inquiry Learning and the World of Work. Four years of European Cooperation in the Mascil project. Mascil final publication. University of Education Freiburg, Germany. pp 86-91. ISBN 978-90-70786-35-9.
  • The Norwegian FASMED team. (2016). Birgit Pepin, Svein Arne Sikko, Jardar Cyvin, Maria Immaculata Febri, Øistein Gjøvik, and Ragnhild Lyngved Staberg. Deliverable 5.2 Cross comparative analysis of case studies, July 20 2016. Fasmed: “Improving progress for lower achievers through Formative Assessment in Science and Mathematics Education”. Grant agreement no: 612337.
  • The Norwegian MASCIL team. (2016). Ragnhild Lyngved Staberg, Svein Arne Sikko, Maria Immaculata Febri, Heidi Dahl. Deliverable 9.2 Promotion of European Networks, September 16 2016. Mascil: «Mathematics and science for life». Grant agreement no: 320693.
  • Weihberger, A., Bronner, P. Maass, K., & Reitz-Koncebovski, K. (2016). Inquiry-based learning and the world of work. In: Doorman, M. Jonker, V.  & Wijers, M.: Mathematics and Science in Life: Inquiry-based learning and the world of work (S. 94-97).
  • Boesen, J., Helenius, O., & Johansson, B. (2015). National-scale professional development in sweden: Theory, policy, practice. ZDM, 47(1), 129-141. doi: 10.1007/s11858-014-0653-4
  • Doorman, L.M., Garcia, Javier, Potari, Despina, Zsombori, G. & András, S. (2015). The potential of a task for professional development across national contexts. In K. Maass, B. Barzel, G. Törner, D. Wernisch, E. Schäfer & K. Reitz-Koncebovski (Eds.), Conference Proceedings. Educating the Educators: International Approaches to Scaling-up Professional Development in Mathematics and Science Education – Conference Proceedings in Mathematics Education 2 (pp. 216-227). Münster: WTM Verlag.
  • Maass, K., Wernisch, D., Reitz-Koncebovski, K. & Schäfer, E. (2015). Conference: Educating the educators. In: K. Maaß, G. Törner, D. Wernisch, E. Schäfer & K. Reitz-Koncebovski (Hrsg.): Educating the educators: international approaches to scaling up professional development in mathematics and science education (S. 5-10). Münster: Verlag für wissenschaftliche Texte und Medien .
  • Maass, K., Wernisch, D. & Schäfer, E. (2015). Conference outcomes and conclusions. In: K. Maaß, G. Törner, D. Wernisch, E. Schäfer & K. Reitz-Koncebovski (Hrsg.): Educating the educators: international approaches to scaling up professional development in mathematics and science education (S. 11-17). Münster: Verlag für wissenschaftliche Texte und Medien.
  • Camenzuli, J., & Buhagiar, M.A. (2014) Using inquiry-based learning to support the mathematical learning of students with SEBD, The International Journal of Emotional Education, 6(2), 69-85. Available:
  • Demirdogen, B. & Cakmakci, G. (2014). Investigating students’ interest in chemistry through self-generated questions. Chemistry Education Research and Practice15, 192-206.
  • Dorier, J. & Maaß, K. (2014). Inquiry based Mathematics education. Encyclopedia of Mathematics education (S. 300-304). Dordrecht, Heidelberg, London, New York: Springer.


2011 – 2013:

  • Cakmakci, G. Sevindik, H., Pektas, M., Uysal, A., Kole, F. & Kavak, G. (2012). Investigating Turkish primary school students’ interests in science by using their self-generated questions. Research in Science Education42(3), 469-489.
  • Cakmakci, G., Tosun, O., Turgut, S., Orenler, S., Sengul, K., & Top, G. (2011). Promoting an inclusive image of scientists among students: Towards research evidence-based practice. International Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 9(3), 627-655.
  • Calleja, J. (2013). Mathematical Investigations: The impact of students’ enacted activity on design, development, implementation and evaluation. In C. Margolinas (ed.) Task Design in Mathematics Education: Proceedings of ICMI Study 22. Oxford, UK. Available online:
  • Hagay. G., Baram-Tsabari, A., Ametller, J., Cakmakci, G., Lopes, B., Moreira, A. & Pedrosa-de-Jesus, H. (2013). The generalizability of students’ interests in biology across gender, country and religion. Research in Science Education43(3), 895-919.
  • Maaß, K. & Artigue, M. (2013). Implementation of inquiry-based learning in day-to-day teaching: a synthesis. ZDM – The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(6), 779–795.
  • Maaß, K., & Doorman, M. (2013). A model for a widespread implementation of inquiry-based learning. ZDM – The International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45(6), 887-899.
    Engeln, K., Euler, M., & Maaß, K. (2013). Inquiry-based learning in mathematics and science: a comparative baseline study of teachers’ beliefs and practices across 12 European countries. ZDM – The International Journal onMathematics Education, 45(6), 823–836.
  • Munkebye, E., & Staberg, R. L. (2013). Animal footprint. In: Inquiry-based learning in maths and science classes. What it is and how it works – examples – experiences. Primas 2013 ISBN 9783000438516. pp 20-22.
  • Lyngved, R., Pepin, B., & Sikko, S.A. (2012). Working with teachers on inquiry based learning (IBL) and mathematics and science tasks. In: Rønning, F., Diesen, R., Hoveid, H., Pareliussen, I. (Eds.): FoU i praksis 2011. Rapport fra konferanse om praksisrettet FoU i lærerutdanning. Trondheim, Tapir Akademisk Forlag, pp 275-285.
  • Sikko S.A., Lyngved, R., & Pepin, B. (2012). Working with Mathematics and Science teachers on inquiry-based learning (IBL) approaches: Teacher beliefs. Acta Didactica Norge 6(1):1-18.
  • Swan, M., Pead, D., Doorman, L.M. & Mooldijk, A.H. (2013). Designing and using professional development resources for inquiry based learning. ZDM – International Journal on Mathematics Education, 45 (7), 945-957.

Do you have any questions?